Black Matpe or Vigna mungo (L.) is one of the legumes. This bean looked a lot like the green gram (Vigna radiata (L.)), with the differences in the colour of the inner beans of black matpe is bright yellow, while green gram is pale yellow, and the black gram pods stiff while
the green gram are loose. Black matpe has a cylindrical, stiff pod that contains 4 to 10 beans in each pod. As a plant, black matpe is adaptable to various environmental conditions, have an early maturing, disease resistant, and easily cultivated. Black matpe beans originated from Central Asia and India, and now widely cultivated in many tropical area of Asia, Africa, and Madagascar, also in USA and Australia. India is the main producer of black matpe beans, with about 1.5 million ton of seeds annually. In Southern Asia, black matpe is a popular food ingredient, while in USA and Australia black matpe is used as a fodder crop. Black matpe beans is great as a replacement for fish meal and maize grain in poultry diet.
Black matpe beans commonly distributed in dry beans forms, so the manufacturing process of this beans are:
Convey and Transfers
Following harvest, beans are delivered to the elevator where samples are taken from each load to check for quality, color, foreign material, and moisture content. Beans are delivered with caution because this stage has a higher risk of damage for the
Upon delivery to the local elevator, the bean truck loads are weighed and then immediately dumped into a handling pit in the floor of the receiving area. Beans are dropped carefully to minimize the shattering of the dry seed coats. The handling pit provides for aggregation of the beans for conveyance to subsequent cleaning operations.
Bean Cleaning, Sorting, and Grading
The first cleaning operation for beans are the direct application of high-velocity air to pass through the beans and lift lighter-than-bean material such as stems, leaves, pods, checked seed coats, and other forms of trash and plant material. Next, the unit operation involves in removing the materials that heavier than the beans, including stones, and “mud balls” by using “gravity table”. For the sorting, bean size separation is achieved by screening over a series of sieves that provides increased uniformity of size and shape that desired. The first thing to do is to separate the beans into two categories, “overs” and “throughs”. The “overs” are materials that do not pass through the screen, while the “throughs” are materials that do pass directly through the sieve. From the proper size configuration in a series of screens, the vast majority of both oversized and undersized material will be eliminated directly. Final cleaning stage includes the color sorting. The sorting is done by an equipment that possesses a series of photoelectric cells referred as “electric eyes”. Each bean will be channeled past the photoelectric cell in subdivided individual lane position, from this process the discolored beans will be rejected by a blast of air. The contrasting classes and other grains will also be removed in this stage based on color.
The beans are conveyed in trucks from the field to the storage receipt elevator. While received, beans immediately processed with air aspiration to remove material that is lighter than the beans, like leaves, pods, and stems. Beans are commonly stored in a variety of structures constructed as wood cribs, concrete silos, or steel bins. in the storage, beans are continually monitored for storage stability including providing continuous aeration and moisture content control. This action is necessary to ensure that the beans are not molding, producing heat, and off from developing unwanted odors or even bad flavors.
Dry edible beans are packaged in food grade impervious materials to make sure that the integrity of the package allows for minimum subsequent contamination of the product. Nowadays the method for handling dry beans is using the alternate materials such as laminated paper and polypropylene sacks.
The application of black matpe beans are for cooking and fodder crop. Common black matpe dish is Dhal, usually cooked in South Asia. While for fodder crop, black matpe could be used for cattle, pigs, and poultry feeds.
Black Matpe Beans