Cashew

Cashew

  • Anacardium occidentale (L.)
  • 20081910
  • Kidney-shaped with pale ivory, white, or light ash in colour
  • -
Grade Origin Download
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China
TDS MSDS

Application

Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) comes from a medium-sized tropical tree called cashew tree. This tree originated from Brazil, that later brought to Africa and India by the Portuguese in the 16th Century. The cashew tree produces fruits called cashew apple. It is an accessory fruits with oval or pear shaped structure that develops from the pedicel and the receptacle of the cashew flower. While the true fruit of the cashew tree is the kidney-shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple. This fruit is 3 cm long and composed of a kernel that is covered by a thin skin and two shells. The inner shell is very hard and difficult to crack, while the gaps between the two shells is a highly caustic oily substance when touched with bare hands.

Cashew nuts are a popular food in snacks. They usually sold in vacuum packed bags and used in forms of whole, chopped, roasted, salted, and unsalted. Cashew nuts could also be used as cooking ingredients.

 

Manufacturing Process

Cashew Nut has a complicated manufacturing process. The process to manufacture cashew nut are:

Separating

When cashew nuts are ripe, they will most likely fall from the tree. Then they are gathered up and separated from the “apples”. This separation could either be done manually, using a hammer, or mechanically depends on the manufacturer. Once the kernel is removed from its shell, then the kernel is dried.

Cleaning

Because all raw nuts carry foreign matter, then cleaning the kernel is necessary. Cleaning could also help to reduce or even avoid the presence of foreign matter in the roasting operation.

Soaking

Next stage is to soak the nuts in water to avoid scorching them during the roasting operation. This operation is done by placing the nuts in a 40-45 gallon drum or vat and filling it with water until all the nuts are covered and leave them for about ten minutes. Then, drain the water and leave the nuts again for about four hours to allow the water that is left on the surface of the nuts to be absorbed. The process of covering the nuts with water, draining and standing should be repeated until a moisture content of 9% is reached.

Roasting

There are three methods of roasting:

  • Open pan: An open, mild steel, circular dished pan of around 2 feet in diameter is supported on a basic earth fireplace. When heated, nuts are placed on the pan and constantly stirred. This method makes the cashew nut shell liquid starts to exude and then ignites. After approximately two minutes, the pan is dowsed, while the nuts that are swollen and brittle will be thrown out of the pan. The moisture will evaporate quickly leaving the nuts ready for shelling.
  • Drum roasting: In this method, the nuts are feeded into a rotating drum over a fire developed from the pan method. A slight horizontal slope in the mounting ensures the movement of the nuts through the drum. The drum is pierced so that the flames touch the nuts and the smoke is controlled by a hood and chimney arrangement. The nuts are dowsed using a continuous spray.
  • Hot oil method: In this method, conditioning is the most important thing. The principle in this method is that oil-bearing substances i.e. the shells will lose their oil when immersed in the same oil at high temperature, thus increasing the volume of the oil in the tank.

Shelling

After being sprayed with water, cooled down and dried, cashew nuts kernels then ready to be shelled. The purpose of shelling is to produce clean and whole kernels, free of cracks. There are two methods to shelling the kernel: the manual method and mechanically. Basically in this process the shell is tapped to make a crack and then carefully widening the crack to extract the kernel.

Separation

Shell pieces and kernels will be separated, while the unshelled nuts are returned to the shelling operation. Blowers and shakers are usually used to separate the lighter shell pieces from the kernels. This method is done manually from a conveyor belt used to carry all the sorted semi-shelled nuts.

Grading

Grading could be done before or after drying the kernels. This process is needed to separate the whole kernels from the broken kernels, and sometimes could be used to separate the different size groups of whole kernels.

Drying

The shelled kernel is covered with testa, the outer pinkish layer. To remove this layer and produce the blanched kernel, the shelled kernel is dried. This process is also done to protect the kernel from pest and fungus attack. In this dried condition, the kernels are in their most vulnerable state to being both brittle and susceptible to insect infestation. Thus, in this stage drying must be handled with care and moved to the peeling stage as soon as possible.

Peeling

After drying, the testa will started to loose or even lose from the kernels. During this stage, manual peeling is done by gently rubbing the kernel with the fingers or bamboo knife to remove the testa. While for the mechanised processes, include air-blasting, suction, freezing operation, and a system of rubber rollers.

Packing

The cashew nut kernels then packed in food grade impervious materials packaging to make sure that there will be a minimum subsequent contamination of the product. Nowadays the method for handling dry beans is using the alternate materials such as laminated paper and polypropylene sacks.

 

Cashew nut kernels are usually sold in vacuum-packed bags. They are used as cooking ingredients or popularly used as snacks.

Grade

Generally, there are three types of cashew based on its colour, white cashew, scorched cashew, and dessert cashew. These are the grades of those cashew based on the guidelines from Cashew Export Council of India and Association of Food Industries.

Cashew Kernels - White Wholes

Grade Designation

Trade Name

Colour/

Characteristics

Count/454 gms size description

Moisture Max

Broken Max

NLSG Max

W-180

White Wholes

White/pale ivory/light ash

170-180

5

5

5

(NLSG & SW together)

W-210

200-210

5

5

W-240

220-240

5

5

W-320

300-320

5

5

W-450

400-450

5

5

W-500

450-500

5

5

5 (SW)

Remarks: Kernels shall be completely free from infestation,  insect damage, mould rancidity, adhering testa and objectionable extraneous  matter. Scraped and partially shrivelled kernels also permitted provided such  scraping/shrivelling does not affect the characteristic shape of the kernel.

 

Cashew Kernels - Scorched Wholes

Grade Designation

Trade Name

Colour/

Characteristics

Count/454 gms size description

Moisture Max

Broken Max

NLSG Max

SW

Scorched Wholes

Kernels may be scorched/slightly darkened due to ver-heating while roasting or drying in dryer/borma

N.A

5

5

7.5 (SSW)

SW-180

170-180

5

5

7.5 (NLSG & SW together)

SW-210

200-210

5

5

SW-240

220-240

5

5

SW-320

300-320

5

5

SW-450

400-450

5

5

SW-500

450-500

5

5

7.5 (SW)

Remarks: Kernels shall be completely free from infestation,  insect damage, mould rancidity, adhering testa and objectionable extraneous  matter. Scraped and partially shrivelled kernels also permitted provided such  scraping/shrivelling does not affect the characteristic shape of the kernel.

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