Cowpeas

Cowpeas

  • Vigna unguiculata (L.)
  • 07133500
  • Very small, spherical, with white or cream as base colour and a hint of black in the hilum area
  • Blackeye peas
Grade Origin Download
Brazil
TDS MSDS
India
TDS MSDS
Singapore
TDS MSDS
United Arab Emirates
TDS MSDS

Application

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) is a plant that belongs to the Fabaceae family. Although it has a “pea” in the name, cowpea is actually a bean. Historically this plant is cultivated in India and China and related to the mung bean. Because cowpeas are the most productive heat adapted legume, the cultivation then spread widely to Southeast Asia, Africa, and Southern United States. Cowpea varieties have grown diverse, so they can either be short and bushy or even vine climbing along supports or trailing along the ground. One of the famous cow pea varieties is the black-eyed peas/black-eyed beans.

Cowpea plants are an excellent N source for soil and attract beneficial insects that will prey on pests. This is the reason why cowpeas gained popularity among consumer and researchers worldwide. Not only beneficial while cultivated, cowpeas have many healthy beneficial properties, such as anti diabetic, anti inflammatory, anti cancer, anti hyperlipidemic, and anti hypertensive properties. Cowpeas also important for weight loss and to managing diabetes.  

 

Manufacturing Process

The dry beans cowpea manufacturing process is the same as the post harvesting process. The process is explained below.

Harvesting

The ideal time for harvesting peas varies, depends on the timeliness of harvest, the level of maturity of the pods, and the care in handling. It is important to use clean equipment or clean hands in this process. Peas should be removed from the plants cleanly without tearing them or causing undue damage to the pods or plants.

Cleaning and Sorting

The purpose for this process is to remove any unwanted material. Because peas are quite vulnerable, then a gentle cleaning process is needed. Firstly, coarse dirt in the peas are removed with shake and drum sieve and a blower. Then, peas are fed into the machine through a funnel. In the first part of flotation washer the remaining coarse and heavy dirt particles in green peas are removed. The stream that is formed at the bottom of the washer is strong that only the heavier parts sink. In the second part of the washer light material such as bark, leaves, and pea peels are sorted and will float to the surface of the water. Lastly, using a strong flow of water the soggy and sunken peas are pressed to a vibrating sieve screen. In this last step, any remaining pea peels are loosened and the remaining sand is washed away.

From the cleaning machine, peas are transported to the sorting machine using a conveyor belt or water. Peas then sorted to ensure its uniformity in cleaning, sizing, and prepared to be packed.

Storaging

Peas are usually harvested in large amounts, thus to maintain its quality the beans needed to be stored. Peas are stored in cooling storage, generally refrigeration or field-pack stored in cool places or room cooling. Refrigeration is needed to maintain peas quality and substantially lengthens shelf life by reducing the effects of dehydration and lessen damage that caused by decay-producing organisms.

Packaging

Dry edible beans are packaged in food grade impervious materials to make sure that the integrity of the package allows for minimum subsequent contamination of the product.

 

Dried blackeye bean usually used for food products. There are two types of blackeye bean products that commonly found, blackeye beans in forms of dry beans and canned products of blackeye beans. Canned blackeye beans can be used for cooking ingredients for various soups and bean mixes.

 

Grades

Percent Maximum Limits of

Grades

U.S No. 1

U.S No. 2

U.S No. 3

Moisture

18.0

18.0

18.0

Total Defects

(Total damaged, Total foreign material, Contrasting classes, & Splits)

4.0

6.0

8.0

Total Damaged

2.0

4.0

6.0

Foreign Material

     

Total

(including stones)

0.5

1.0

1.5

Stones

0.2

0.4

0.6

Contrasting Classes

0.5

1.0

2.0

Classes that Blend

5.0

10.0

15.0

U.S. Substandard shall be beans which do not meet the requirements for the grades U.S. No. 1 through U.S. Sample grade. Beans which are not well screened shall also be U.S. Substandard, except for beans which meet the requirements for U.S. Sample grade.

 

U.S. Sample grade shall be beans which are musty, sour, heating, materially weathered, or weevily; which have any commercially objectionable odor; which contain insect webbing or filth, animal filth, any unknown foreign substance, broken glass, or metal fragments; or which are otherwise of distinctly low quality.

 

1Beans with more than 18.0 percent moisture are graded High moisture.

2Beans with more than 2.0 percent contrasting classes are graded Mixed beans.

3Beans with more than 15.0 percent classes that blend are graded Mixed beans.

Source:

United Stated Department of Agriculture: United States Standards for Beans (2017).

 

Categorization

Cowpeas belongs to Fabaceae family; thus it is categorized as beans.

 

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