Groundnut

Groundnut

  • Arachis hypogaea
  • 12024200
  • Small, various in shape: oval, round, and various in colours: red, dark purple, white
  • Peanut
Grade Origin Download
-
Brazil
TDS MSDS
India
TDS MSDS

Application

Groundnut or Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) belongs to the Fabaceae family grown for its oil and edible nuts. Groundnut originates from South America and then spread to Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The fruit (pod, nut) of the peanut is made of an external shell and the nut itself, which consist of a thin seed coat, the kernel, and the germ. Those parts refer to the whole fruit with the name of “peanut”. Peanut pods are developed underground, with each pods are 3 to 7 cm long and contain one to four seeds.

Generally, there are four types of groundnut:

  • Runner/Bold: a dominant variety in U.S. Have a bold and uniform medium size kernels that are covered with light red-colored skins which darken quickly. This peanut mainly used for peanut butter and coated confectionary products.
  • Virginia: This variety has the largest kernels among other peanuts. Grown mainly in Southeastern Virginia, Northeastern North Carolina, and Texas. Mainly used as roasted in-shell peanuts, salted/flavored shelled products, and confectionary products.
  • Spanish, Java: Has a small round kernels with a reddish-brown skin. Has a high oil content and high life expectancy in shelf life. Mainly used as candies, coated confectionary products, salted shelled products, peanut butter, peanut oil production.
  • Valencia, Red Natal, or Red-skin Java: This variety has a very sweet peanuts taste. This peanut also has three or more small kernels in a pod and each kernels have a deep dark skin. Mainly used as roasted in-shell peanuts, roasted or fried salt products, fresh use, and in boiled peanuts.

 

Manufacturing Process

Groundnut in dry beans manufacturing process are:

Harvesting

Harvesting is the most crucial yet tricky part. Because, if the harvesting is done too soon then yield and the grade of the products will suffer, while if the harvesting is done too late then the pods will detach in the ground. To solve this problem, farmers used the hull-scrape method to determine beans maturity and using the color profile chart for harvest date. Harvesting consists of digging or pulling up the plant from the soil and allowing the plant to wit and then picking the pods from the vines. Harvesting groundnuts could be done by mechanical such as groundnut digger or wing-type plough, or even manually for small-scale farm.

Stripping

Stripping is the process consist of separating groundnut pods from the plant or haulm. Groundnut could be stripped manually, by picking pod by pod. While for large scale, groundnuts are stripped in a Drum stripper. The drum stripper will beaten the groundnuts over the rubber-covered rods of a revolving drum.

Drying

In this process the groundnut moisture is reduced to below 10%. In this process, the nuts are prone to mould attack, especially at warm temperature and high humidity. The method for drying groundnuts are either dried in field stack or using mechanical driers.

Storage

Because groundnut are semi-perishable, there are many requirements that needs to be fulfilled, such as

  • The storage temperature: in general, the temperature should be low to expand the storage life of groundnuts
  • The relative humidity: the humidity should be in range of 65% to 70. Because, humidity below 65% the nuts will lose weight, become brittle, and may split during handling. While humidity above 70%  groundnuts will likely to develop mould.
  • The atmosphere: storage room should be free of odours, flavours, and well aerated.

Shelling or Decorticating

In this process, the kernels are separated from their shells through the application of mechanical forces. Shelling is usually carried out for two reasons:

  • Groundnuts in the shell are about 50% heavier than kernels alone and are therefore cost more to transport
  • Groundnuts have to be shelled to facilitate further processing

Grading

Grading could be done before or after drying the kernels. This process is needed to separate the whole kernels from the broken kernels, and sometimes could be used to separate the different size groups of whole kernels.

Packing

The groundnut kernels then packed in food grade impervious materials packaging to make sure that there will be a minimum subsequent contamination of the product. Nowadays the method for handling dry beans is using the alternate materials such as jute bags, tinplate containers, plastic, or paper boxes, or bags.

 

The groundnut is grown for its kernels for producing oil, meal, and even as vegetative residue. Groundnut kernel could be eaten raw, roasted, or boiled, or could be salted or made into a paste that popularly known as peanut butter.  From this kernel, groundnut oil could be extracted too. Groundnut oil is the most important product of the crop with 40% of the world crop of groundnut processed into oil. The groundnut oil could be used for cooking, margarines and vegetable ghee, pastries and bakeries, pharmaceutical, cosmetics products, insecticides, and as a fuel diesel engines. While the dry pericarp of the mature pods may be used as fuel, soil conditioner, filler in feeds, source of furfural, processed as a substitute for cork or hardboard, or composted with the aid of lignin-decomposing bacteria.

 

Grades

Factor/Description

Limit

1. 

In-Pod Defects

 

1.1

Empty Pods

pods containing no kernels

3% m/m

1.2

Damaged Pods, include:

10% m/m

 
  1. Shriveled pods (pods which are imperfectly developed and shrunken)
 
 
  1. Pods having cracks or broken areas which cause conspicuous openings or which seriously weaken a large portion of the pod, especially if the kernel inside the pod is easily visible without any pressure forced upon the edges, of the crack
 

1.3

Discolored Pods

pods having dark discoloration caused by mildew, staining, or other means affecting 50% or more of the pod surface.

2% m/m

2

Kernel Defects

 

2.1

Damaged kernels, include:

 
 
  1. Those affected by freezing injury causing hard, translucent, or discolored flesh

1% m/m

 
  1. Shriveled kernels which are imperfectly developed and shrunken

5% m/m

 
  1. Those damaged by insects, worm cuts

2% m/m

 
  1. Mechanical damage

2% m/m

 
  1. Germinated kernels

2% m/m

2.2

Discolored kernels

Kernels are not damaged but are affected by one or more of the following

3% m/m

 
  1. Flesh (cotyledon) discoloration which is darker than a light yellow color or consists of more than a slight yellow pitting of the flesh
 
 
  1. Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark grey, dark blue, or black, and covers more than 25% of the kernels
 

2.3

Broken and Split Kernels

Broken kernels are those from which more than a quarter has been broken off, split kernels have been split into halves

3% m/m

3

Peanuts other than the designated type

5% m/m

m/m: by mass

Source: International Nuts and Dried Fruit.

 

Categorization

Groundnuts belongs to the Fabaceae family, therefore it is categorized as beans.

 

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